In his first book of Satires, written in the late, violent days of the Roman republic, Horace exposes satiric speech as a tool of power and domination. Post your questions to our community of 350 million students and teachers. Neglect of Swift's poetry, sermons, and essays, as well as his other satires, contributes to the 'hard' school's failure to understand his mode of satire and to recognise the religious import and ultimate meaning of Houyhnhnmiand. The main weapon of the satirist is verbal irony, a figure of speech in which words are used to ridicule a person or thing by conveying a meaning that is the opposite of what the words say.  Horace's Satires and Epistles however also had a huge impact, influencing theorists and critics such as John Dryden. century to look at social issues impartially in terms of calculations, according to new advances in science, mathematics and economics, rather than considering the human factor. The main purpose of a satire is to spur readers to remedy the problem under discussion. Satire aimed at classes or groups of offenders (such as seducers, gold diggers, religious hypocrites) is known as Horatian satire because the Roman satiric poet Horace practiced a general, almost friendly style of satire, designed to encourage the guilty to recognize themselves--often in carature--and gently laugh themselves out of theif vices. Milton recommended both works in his treatise of Education. 5 Discuss economic inequality in the Modest Proposal. Thus these four voyages of Gulliver represent Swiftâs criticisms of and concerns about his own time and the future of humanity. Satire is the use of irony, humor or exaggeration to criticize the ideas of others. When Swift's other works are consulted, his views about human nature, satire, and religion become clear. Main Satire and the Threat of Speech. Laputa, is a satire on scientists and philosophers; and the final journey to the strangest land of all, that of the Houyhnhnms, is the satire on the denunciation of human species. His own main concern is after all rather with literature as a social phenomenon than with literature as an art. Learn faster and improve your grades In terms of words chosen for the title of his essay, Swift was able to give a preview of style and nature of his essay. The lack of action of the Irish people was also a theme of the satire. Persius denies that the interjections of praise mean any real literary criticism in words clearly modelled on Horace's Ars Poetica. The importance of being earnest by Oscar Wilde uses satire to ridicule the cultural norms of marriage love and mind-set which were very rigid during the Victorian Age. This I imagine was the chief Reason, why he minded only the clearness of his Satire, and the cleanness of Expression, without ascending to those heights, to which his own vigour might have carri'd him. What does Swift's satire reveal about his attitude towards the rich in lines 112 - 125? Swift also expresses his concern with the Irish people who cannot act with a firm resolution to improve their situations. Get expert, verified answers. The rich don't care about and dislike the poor so Swift, in turn, doesn't care about the rich and he abhors them as much as the wealthy abhor the lower class. A: Economic inequality was Swift's main concern, and he expressed that concern satirically in The Modest Proposal. Horace's Ars Poetica is second only to Aristotle's Poetics in its influence on literary theory and criticism. Writes under his own force, and carries a dead Weight, that he may match his Competitor in the Race. Because it uses satire to ridicule these instituitions, it shows the deviance from the social order by making ridiculous the ideas of standards, morals and manners.