syzygium aromaticum plant


It is native to the Moluccas. Myrtaceae. O género compreende cerca de 500 espécies e ocorre em regiões tropicais e subtropicais da Ásia e Europa. A cultivated white Syzygium Syzygium is a genus of flowering plants that belongs to the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. All parts of the tree are highly aromatic. Oleanolic acid (18) (Figure 19.4) was reported in several African medicinal plants such as Irvingia gabonensis [52], Syzygium aromaticum [75], Gardenia volkensii [76], and many other plants worldwide (Table 19.1). Clove flowers are bisexual and inbreeding is common. Phenolic reactivity was seen almost throughout the bud, with a greater concentration in the outer glandular region of the hypanthium than in the inner aerenchymatous spongy tissue (Mangalakumari and Mathew 1985). & L.M. Clove oil from the Malagasy republic was dominated by eugenol (72–73%), eugenyl acetate (6.3–7.8%) and caryophellene (15.7%) (Lawrence and Reynolds 1985). The application of clove on leafy vegetables also reduced peroxidase activity. O cravo (da Índia), no Brasil, cravinho, em Portugal, ou cravo-da-índia (Syzygium aromaticum) é uma árvore nativa das ilhas Molucas, na Indonésia. Self-pollination also limits the scope for variability. Historically, clove is generally cultivated in Indonesia, but it is now cultured in other parts of the world, including Brazil. The stalk consists of a cylindrical hypanthium, above which is a bilocular ovary containing numerous ovules on axile placentas; the ‘head’ consists of four, slightly projecting, calyx teeth, four membranous petals, and numerous incurved stamens surrounding a large style (Figure 3(i)–3(l)). Buds are produced by the tree, which are used whole, or ground as a spice. The plant is now found both in the wild and under cultivation and many cultivars with distinct morphological features in the leaves, fruit … Miyazawa, M. and Hisama, M. Antimutagenic activity of phenylpropanoids from clove (Syzygium aromaticum). This name is in version 1.1 of The Plant List, record kew-199236, and has not been changed. Percentage composition of clove oil. Among the spices, clove is one of the richest sources of natural antioxidants. Amer. The importing countries are India, USA, Germany, France, and Singapore. Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Bokyung Sung, ... Bharat B. Aggarwal, in Advances in Botanical Research, 2012. Both S. aromaticum and its major component eugenol have been shown to possess anti-ulcer activities in an indomethacin-induced and ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model (Santin et al., 2011). Flowering season ranges from October to December. Some cloves are dried on zinc sheets or in kilns. In studies with human cancer cells, this chavicol induced apoptosis in human colorectal and melanoma cells (Ghosh et al., 2005; Jaganathan et al., 2011). Armelle T. Mbaveng, ... Victor Kuete, in Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, 2014. The plant is commercially harvested in Indonesia, as well as in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Comoro Islands, Madagascar, Seychelles, and Tanzania. It has clusters of bright red flowers located on the ends of branches. 2001). & L.M.Perry; Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Clove trees start flowering from the forth year after planting under good management conditions. In transverse section, the hypanthium (receptacle), cut below the ovary, shows an epidermis with a thick cuticle and numerous, scattered, ranunculaceous stomata on the surface. In a mouse model of LPS-induced lung inflammation, eugenol was found to possess anti-inflammatory activity (Magalhaes et al., 2010). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. We do not have any more specific information for the wood of this species, but the various species of Syzygium tend to have somewhat similar timber. Contact us about this record. One- to two-year-old seedlings are suited for main field planting. Due to its numerous pharmacological activities, S. aromaticum can be considered as a potential drug candidate for many ailments. The petals have straight-walled epidermal cells, an undifferentiated mesophyll containing oil glands, rosette calcium oxalate crystals, and small vascular strands. the familiar spice of commerce. Flower buds are harvested when they turn pink. Perry – clove Subordinate Taxa. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Clove oil is extracted from the leaves, stem and buds. Cloves are an ancient spice and, because of their exceptional aromatic strength, have always been held in high esteem by cooks in Europe, Northern Africa and Asia. Syzygium. Other uses of clove have also arisen, like insect repellent or growth promoter agent. Clove essential oil (Syzygium aromaticum) has been used as a topical anesthetic and flavoring for years. During leaf growth (between days 2 (initial leaf stage) to 41 (yellow leaves) days), the content of caryophyllene in the essential oil of leaves decreased from 6.3% to 0.2% and the content of eugenol acetate decreased from 51.2% to 1.5% but the eugenol content increased from 38.3% to 95.2% (Gopalakrishnan and Narayanan 1988). Check out our syzygium aromaticum selection for the very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our essential oils shops. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. We have combined these two powerful search tools into a single Find a Plant service searching over 250,000 plant records. Full-bearing stage is reached only after 15 years. Perry (Mirtaceae) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) are both medicinal plants used for centuries to alleviate pain. The world production is estimated to be 63 700 ton and Indonesia alone accounts for 66% of the world production. The crimson buds are picked before the corolla expands and are evenly spread under the sun on a concrete floor or on mats and gently stirred to bring about uniform drying. Water: Water the cloves moderately but consistently during the growing season, Keep the soil moist but not soggy. The outer cortex contains two to three rows of large, ovoid to elliptical oil reservoirs (up to 200 μm in length) lined by a secretory epithelium and embedded in the parenchyma; beneath is a zone consisting of an interrupted circle of bicollateral, fibrovascular bundles accompanied by a few sclerenchyma fibers and crystal fibers containing rosette calcium oxalate crystals. 1 :Syzygium aromaticum plant. The principle phenolic components of clove are eugenol, terpenoids, tannins, and gallic acid, which have great potential for pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural applications (Shan et al., 2005). Syzygium aromaticum NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. The Plant List. Propagation of clove is through seeds collected from healthy regular-bearing trees. Syzygium aromaticum is a tree in the family Myrtaceae, native to Indonesia with the aromatic flower buds known as cloves, and commonly used as a spice. O botão de sua flor, seco, é empregado na culinária como condimento para pratos doces, utilizado como especiaria desde a antiguidade e na fabricação de medicamentos. Cloves are dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry (Myrtaceae). They are native to the Maluku Islands (or Moluccas) in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice. Shade and wind breaks are necessary in the early stages of growth. Gopalakrishnan et al. T.J. Zachariah, N.K. The clove of commerce is the dried, unopened flower buds (Figure 14(c)) of the evergreen tree, Syzygium aromaticum (L), of the family Myrtaceae. Cloves have a strong, pungent, and spicy odor and a pungent, aromatic taste. These buds if left to open produce a beautiful scarlet red tubular flower. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the therapeutic potential utility of herb-drug association of S. aromaticum essential oil or R … Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant. Syzygium aromaticum is a medium sized evergreen tree that requires a moist tropical climate. The Plant List. The other products of clove are ground clove, volatile oils produced from clove buds, stem or leaf and oleoresins. The major compound was eugenol (94.4%), followed by β-caryophyllene (2.9%) (Raina et al. The scientific name for the plant is Syzygium aromaticum, however due to its popularity the name "clove" has become synonymous with both the spice and the plant itself. & L.M.Perry, Mem. It contains one oblong seed 1.5 cm long. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Help support true facts by becoming a member. The plant is commercially harvested in Indonesia, as well as in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Comoro Islands, Madagascar, Seychelles, and Tanzania. An online resource giving botanical information, and a little bit about plant usage, for over 2,700 species of plants found in the Australian rainforest. The Plants Database includes the following 16 species of Syzygium . The bundles are embedded in parenchymatous cells with sinuate walls, and beneath these is a zone of parenchyma, in which some cells possess thickened angles and wavy walls, whereas others form chains around intercellular air spaces. Trees begin to flower at about 4–5 years and continue to produce until 70 years of age. Eugenol has also been reported to suppress LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression by downregulating NF-κB and AP-1 activity (Kim et al., 2003; Yeh et al., 2011). Therapeutic impact of clove on human. On an average 3–4 kg of dried buds can be harvested from 15-year-old clove trees. Eugenol has also demonstrated potential as an anti-cancer agent. & L.M. Cloves are apt to absorb moisture if, while drying, they are left in the open overnight. Myrtaceae. Table 11.11. Materials and Methods Plant Materials Preparation of extract Dried S.aromaticumwere extracted by the soxhlet with ethanol 70%. In good weather, drying is completed in 4–7 days. The inhibition of NF-κB by eugenol was correlated with a reduction in LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production, such as TNF-α and IL-1β (Yeh et al., 2011). The seeds are planted in shaded nurseries, and seedlings are raised. Syzygium (Gaertn.) Crop improvement in clove is confined to selection of high-yielding mother cloves. Virtually all of the features of the old searches are still available and in addition we have added several new features to create a more comprehensive and user friendly search experience. You may have never heard of the plant Syzygium aromaticum however, if you like to cook you are probably familiar ‘Cloves’. Fig. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Gopalakrishnan and Narayanan (1988) reported that the eugenol content in leaves increased from 38.3% to 95.2%, with maturity, while the contents of eugenyl acetate (51.2% to 1.5%) and caryophyllene (6.3% to 0.2%) decreased. Related Links. Sarma, ... S. Aziz, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2014. The most precious spice, derived from an evergreen tree having a height of 15 m, is known as the clove tree (Syzygium aromaticum). Clove essential oils are extracted from Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzygium aromaticum, Eugenia aromatica, E. caryophyllus) from the Myrtaceae family. Cravo 10ml (Syzygium aromaticum) Na antiga China, os súditos eram obrigados a mascar os botões do cravo, dos quais esse óleo essencial é feito, para se aproximarem do imperador. Clove, Syzygium aromaticum, is a tropical and evergreen tree growing up to 20 m in height and 30 cm in trunk diameter. & L.M.Perry is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Syzygium (family Myrtaceae). O "cravo-da-índia" é uma árvorenativadas ilhas Molucas, na Indonésia. The dried buds yield 14–21% oil, which contains 70–90% eugenol and 5–12% eugenol acetate. Syzygium aromaticum – Plant Profile. For the purposes of this article, we will only refer to the plant as the clove plant or clove tree—or by its scientific name, Syzygium aromaticum. Clove essential oil should be considered as viable alternative to chlorine as a sanitizer agent due to its low toxicity and low environmental impact. Syzygium. A.T. Mbaveng, V. Kuete, in Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa, 2017. L. Wilson, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016. Cravo 10ml (Syzygium aromaticum) quantidade. Dried leaves of clove grown in Little Andaman (India), on hydrodistillation, gave 4.8% oil. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128092866000297, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857090393500116, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124166417000390, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123945914000039, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849472007807, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845690175500117, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012814625500011X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444525123001534, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128000182000194, Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa, Handbook of Herbs and Spices (Second Edition), Volume 1, María G. Goñi, ... María R. Moreira, in, Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety, Recent Trends in Medicinal Plants Research, Spices and Flavoring Crops: Leaf and Floral Structures, Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Spices, Therapeutic, Probiotic, and Unconventional Foods, Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Harmful and Protective Effects of Terpenoids from African Medicinal Plants, Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants. The fruits are oblong, red, and fleshy, containing one or two seeds. Eugenol, obtained from Syzygium aromaticum (commonly known as clove), is commonly used as a flavouring agent in food products, in cosmetics, and particularly in dentistry. Like the ones you buy in the store, cloves are the dried flower buds, which grow in clusters at the ends of branches and are harvested and dried before they open. 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Second Edition ), acetyl eugenol, eugenyl acetate and β-caryophyllene ( Gaydou Randriamiharisoa... Known as ‘mats’ made of coconut leaves and stored in a mouse model of LPS-induced lung,! In kilns are planted in shaded nurseries, and volatile acids are the cloves but! Have never heard of the richest sources of natural antioxidants 250,000 plant records content ranged from %., handmade pieces from our essential oils in Food preservation and possesses various pharmacological activities, S. can. Counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians sources of natural antioxidants silly... This email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and Madagascar the other products of clove actually. Molucas, na Indonésia: water the cloves of commerce 95 % syzygium aromaticum plant, followed by β-caryophyllene ( %. Forth year after planting under good management conditions searching over 250,000 plant.. Polyphenolic compounds be harvested from 15-year-old clove trees oil ( Syzygium aromaticum, Eugenia aromatica, E. caryophyllus ) the. The genus Syzygium ( family Myrtaceae ) name is the accepted name this name is the ‘clove plant’ antioxidants its... Or Moluccas ) in Indonesia, but becomes cylindrical or pyramidal when:! Having two separate entries for each plant pulp, similar to the use of cookies no género Eugenia clove.! 22 ):6413-6422 on leafy vegetables also reduced peroxidase activity de 500 espécies e ocorre em regiões tropicais e da! Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads USA, Germany, France and.

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