paraguay river facts


Paraguay's topography consists of grassy plains and low wooded hills east of its main river, the Rio Paraguay, while the Chaco region west of the river consists of low marshy plains. Subsistence Fishing: Indigenous communities have survived for hundreds of years along the banks of the Paraguay River, and fishing is an integral part of their culture and tradition. New York: Pergamon Press. La Santisima Trinidad De Parana Trinidad. Hydrovia Canal Plan and Environment. Although the original native language, Guarani is still spoken by everyone in the country. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. The total length of Paraná - 4700 kilometers. Owing to its importance as a navigable waterway serving Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay, the river has been the focus of commercial and industrial development. It shows mutual … Itaipu Dam. It flows about 2,695 kilometres (1,675 mi)[2] from its headwaters in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso to its confluence with the Paraná River north of Corrientes and Resistencia. 2. The volume of the lower Paraná River is dependent on the amount of water that it receives from the Paraguay River, which provides about 25 percent of the total; the Paraná’s annual average discharge is 610,700 cubic feet per second (17,293 cubic metres per second). 5. 33. Local engineering company Ingeniería de Topografía y Caminos … The river’s fish population includes the salmonlike dorado, the piranha, and the basslike pacu. Few people live there. In 1982, one of the greatest waterfalls on Earth was submerged by the construction of Itaipu Dam on the Paraná River in Paraguay. The lowest situated place in the country is the Paraguay River – 46 m above sea level. Farther from the river the landscape is dominated by dry forests, scrub, and jungles in some locations. The Paraguay makes a long, gentle curve to the south-southeast before resuming a more south-southwesterly course, dividing the country of Paraguay into two distinct halves: the Gran Chaco region to the west, a largely uninhabited semi-arid region; and the eastern forested departments of the country, accounting for some 98% of the country's inhabitants. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. One of the more surprising facts about Paraguay is that it receives 99.9% of its electricity from hydroelectric plants with 75% of that coming from the Itaipu Dam. Fact 6 There is no aristocratic upper class in Paraguay and this is unlike most other Latin American countries. 6. [5] There are significant temperature variations depending on season. It starts in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. [6] Unsurprisingly many species in the river are essentially of Paraná River Basin origin, but the fauna also has a connection with two Amazonian rivers, the Guaporé and Mamoré. The Paraguay River is the second major river of the Rio de la Plata Basin, after the Paraná River. The top exports of Paraguay are hydroelectric power and soybeans.Other major exports include edible oil, meat, cotton, wood, and leather. Farther downstream the great alluvial plain of the Gran Chaco extends westward from the river. - Int. Available on-line at: http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/, Media related to Río Paraguay at Wikimedia Commons. People are rarely time conscious in Paraguay. The plan entailed constructing more hydroelectric dams along some of the waterways, along with a massive effort to restructure the navigable waterways—most notably the Paraguay River—through dredging of the waterway, rock removal and channel restructuring. The Itaipu Dam built across the Parana River is the 2nd largest hydroelectric power plant on the planet.Since 2012 the Three Gorges Dam in China is the largest. Some believe that it means 'river which originates a sea', or river that flows through the sea', or 'river crowned'. The source and upper course of the Paraguay River are in Brazil, where it demarcates part of the frontier with Paraguay before entering Paraguay itself, which it traverses from north to south. [4] The upper part of the Paraguay River is warmer than the lower and generally its temperature does not fall below 22.5 °C (72.5 °F), although some upper Paraguay tributaries may fall below this. The predominant climate of the Paraguay drainage basin, which has an area of 380,000 square miles (980,000 square km), is hot and humid, characterized by dry winters and heavy rains in the summer. [4], The Paraguay River ecoregion has high species richness with about 350 fish species, including more than 80 endemics. Expand your search. Working Paper 3. Estudo descobre 78 novas espécies de peixes no Rio Madeira. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Downstream from Corumbá the highest rate of flow occurs in July and the lowest from December to January. [4], The peak of the flood season in the Paraguay River (measured at Corumbá) is delayed 4–6 months compared to the peak of the rainy season due to the slow passage of water through the Pantanal wetlands. 42(4): 277-288. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Water in Crisis. Rising in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil at 980 feet (300 metres) above sea level, it crosses Paraguay to its confluence with the Paraná near the Argentine border. On 14 April 2019,[SEN] reported that recent heavy rain in Asuncion City caused the Paraguay river wall to collapse, affecting 300 families in Villa Cangrejo, Sajonia neighborhood. 1. Club River Plate take on Nacional in the 2020 Primera Division on Saturday, December 12, 2020 (1993). The basin is sparsely populated and largely economically underdeveloped. The Paraguay's drainage basin, about 1,095,000 square kilometres (423,000 sq mi), covers a vast area that includes major portions of Argentina, southern Brazil, parts of Bolivia, and most of the country of Paraguay. Few people live there. The Itaipu Dam built across the Parana River is the 2nd largest hydroelectric power plant on the planet.Since 2012 the Three Gorges Dam in China is the largest. 10 Interesting Facts About Paraguay Not So Time-Conscious. Economics, politics, and hydroelectric power: the Paraná River Basin. Among the species shared between these are the black phantom tetra, an important fish in the aquarium industry,[7] and the golden dorado, which is important in the fishing industry.[8][9]. Paraguay’s nickname is the “Corazón de América” (the Heart of America). As such the river is considered perhaps the key geographical feature of the country with which it shares its name. American University Trade and Environment data base (2004). This makes it an important shipping and trade corridor, providing a much-needed link to the Atlantic Ocean for the otherwise landlocked nations of Paraguay and Bolivia. Image credit: en.wikipedia.org. It is 1,584 miles (2,550 km) long. Fraser, L.H., and P.A. This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 18:01. 11. The typical pH of the Paraguay River is 5.8—7.4 in the upper part (defined as the section before the inflow of the first non-Pantanal tributary, the Apa River) and 6.3—7.9 in the lower part. 13–24. While flowing in different directions, the Paraguay, Guaporé and Mamoré all have their source in the same region in central South America. Interesting Paraguay Facts: The name Paraguay originated from a Guarani word but the exact meaning is not known. Gleick, P.H., ed. Pedro Juan Caballero is the highest town in the country. The Paraguay is inaccessible to oceangoing ships, but it is used by local steamers traveling between the capitals of Argentina and Paraguay. The Paraguay's source is south of Diamantino in the Mato Grosso state of Brazil. Paraguay is divided through the Paraguay River into two natural regions, East and West Paraguay. See also Plata, Río de la. Keddy (2005). The two major lakes of Paraguay are Lake Ypoa, which is the largest; and Lake Vera. In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70) - between Paraguay and Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay - Paraguay lost two-thirds of its adult males and much of its territory. Studies indicated that the proposed river engineering of the Paraguay would have a devastating impact on the Pantanal wetlands. It serves such important cities as Asunción and Concepción in Paraguay and Formosa in Argentina. You will see many people, including small children, fishing from the river banks, often using nothing more than a line with a hook. Dueling is still legal in Paraguay provided that both parties are registered blood donors. Paraguay achieved its independence from Spain in 1811. Geography . Eye Contact. [6] Several of these migrate up the Paraguay River to spawn, including Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans. The final plan is still uncertain, along with the effect it will have on the Pantanal and the ecology of the entire Río de la Plata basin. Useful when you are learning about the country, or perhaps supporting Paraguay in a sporting occasion! With the world’s second-largest hydroelectric plant co-owned with Brazil, Paraguay is the world’s fourth-largest electricity exporter. This has created issues in large cities such as Asunción, where poverty-stricken farmers from the country's interior have populated the river's banks in search of an easier lifestyle. Flooding on the lower Paraguay takes place in February, and the river’s flood area reaches some 38,600 square miles (100,000 square km). The river belongs to once the three countries - Brazil,Paraguay and Argentina. As such it provides a way of life for a number of poor fishermen who live along its banks and make the majority of their income selling fish in local markets, as well as supplying a major source of sustenance for their families. The Paraguay River starts in Mato Grosso, a verdant state just to the west of central Brazil. The Paraguay has varying rates of flow between its source and mouth. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Paraguay-River, Paraguay River - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Lammers, O., Moore, D. and Preakle, K. (1994). Best in Paraguay. J. Lim. Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology. It goes through Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina.It is about 2,621 kilometres (1,629 mi) long. To the west of the Paraguay River, the Chaco is a hot scrubland where cattle herders and a few small cities reside. In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70) - between Paraguay and Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay - Paraguay lost two-thirds of its adult males and much of its territory. A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 32. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace. It then turns in a generally southward direction, flowing through the Pantanal wetlands, the city of Corumbá, then running close to the Brazil-Bolivia border for a short distance in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Uruguay (yŏŏ´rəgwā, gwī, Span. Omissions? Unlike many of the other great rivers of the Rio de la Plata Basin, the Paraguay has not been dammed for hydroelectric This river goes through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina over a length of 2,570 kilometers, making it the second largest river in South America, next to the Amazon River. And it is the second longest river in all of South America, second only to the Amazon. The highest peak is Cerro Peró – 842 m above sea level. Paraguay’s name is said to mean “crowned river” after the Guarani words for water and palm crown. There are three passenger boats that make weekly trips up the Paraguay River. Register of international rivers, Water Supply Management, 2 (1). Departments of Paraguay Map It goes through Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina. To the west of the Paraguay River, in the Western Region, the hot scrublands and low plains of the Chaco cover about 60% of Paraguay's total land area. The Paraguay is subject for much of its length to seasonal flooding, which has considerable effect on the flow of the lower Paraná. The Paraguay River (Río Paraguay in Spanish, Rio Paraguai in Portuguese, Ysyry Paraguái in Guarani) is a major river in south-central South America, running through Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina. (2013). Paraguay is split in two by the Paraguay River and it is the 2nd largest river in South America. The river’s flood area exceeds 30,000 square miles (77,700 square kilometers). We have suggestions. The Paraguay River is a major river in south central South America. The Itaipu Dam is situated on the border with Brazil; the dam is owned by both countries. The Chaco Boreal covers about two-thirds of the country and forms the northeastern part of the larger Gran Chaco region, which extends into Bolivia and Argentina. The river bed in the middle reaches is the natural border between Paraguay and Argentina. Here are 20 different things that you probably never knew about Paraguay: 1. [citation needed], The Paraguay River basin includes several distinctive habitats, ranging from very clear waters such as Rio da Prata (pt) near Bonito in the upper part to the sediment-rich Bermejo River in the lower part. (1999). West of the river is a dry, flat region called the Chaco Boreal. 3. The Chaco region is one of the most sparsely populated regions in South America. Available online at http://www.american.edu/TED/hidrovia.htm. The Aquidaban sails between Concepcion and Bahia Negra, while the Cacique II sails between Asuncion and Concepcion, and the Crucero Paraguay sails between Asuncion and Fuerte Olimpo. 1. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Traveling along the river is one of Paraguay’s great adventures. There are three passenger boats that make weekly trips up the Paraguay River. Eastern Paraguay is the smaller part and is a continuation to the south of the Brazilian highlands. The river is used mainly for local traffic; steamers from Buenos Aires ply upstream as far as Asunción. The Indians of these lands thought that some ponds in the wetlands of Brazil, where the Paraguay River originates, were as big as the sea. Let’s delve deep into the largest wetlands in the world – comprising over 81,000 square miles, and see what is on off Elhance, A. P. (1999). Eastern Paraguay, between the Paraná and Paraguay rivers, is upland country with the thickest population settled on the grassy slope that inclines toward the Paraguay River. They value relationships more than keeping time. See the fact file below for more information on the Paraná River or alternatively, you can download our 23-page Paraná River worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment. The Chaco Boreal covers about two-thirds of the country and forms the northeastern part of the larger Gran Chaco region, which extends into Bolivia and Argentina. Latin American Research Review, VXVIII (3), pp. Fact 4 Paraguay’s navy is larger than any other land-locked country. The Aquidaban sails between Concepcion and Bahia Negra, while the Cacique II sails between Asuncion and Concepcion, and the Crucero Paraguay sails between Asuncion and Fuerte Olimpo. It then forms the frontier between Paraguay and Argentina for the last 150 miles (240 km) of its course before joining the Alto (Upper) Paraná River, the combined river then flowing into Argentina as the lower Paraná River. The Itaipu Dam is situated on the border with Brazil; the dam is owned by both countries. The controversy over whether or not the project will have a disastrous effect on the local ecology, as well as the potential economic gains, continues to this day. The Paraguay River, with a length of 1,584 miles (2,550 km), rises in the Bolivian hills and empties into the Paraná River. The World's Largest Wetlands: Ecology and Conservation. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Here are some interesting facts about Paraguay: Interesting Facts about Paraguay: The original inhabitants of Paraguay were the Guarani tribe. The river is a tourist attraction for its beauty. The Paraguayan military has been forced to dedicate land on one of its reserves in the capital to emergency housing for these displaced citizens. This river, which flows through the country from north to south, divides it into two parts. American University Trade and Environment data base. Berkeley, California: International Rivers Network, July. United Nations. Plata/Paraná River Basin, A Case Study. The Paraguay River is the second major river of the Rio de la Plata Basin, after the Paraná River. In 1997 the governments of the nations of the La Plata Basin proposed a plan under the Hidrovia Inter-Governmental Commission (CIH) agency to develop the rivers into an industrial waterway system to help reduce the costs of exporting goods from the area, in particular the soybean crop that the area has embraced. Another interpretation is that Paraguay was … Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Over 1.5 goals 1.25. The Paraguayan Ministry of Public Works and Communications (MOPC) announced in late September the nation’s navigation and ports administration, ANNP, began dredging at the local Paraguay River. The most deadly disease in this country is heart failure. (Source: CIA World Factbook) 17. It is about 2,621 kilometres (1,629 mi) long. Oregon State University. Often referred to as "Corazon de America" or "Heart of America," Paraguay is a beautiful country of diverse landscapes and people in the center of South America. East of the river one can see wavy mountains, fertile lands with red soil and dense forests. Hydropolitics in the 3rd World, Conflict and Cooperation in International River Basins. It ends when it joins the Paraná River north of Corrientes. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Paraguay river basin response to seasonal rainfall. Ships on the Paraguay River at Asunción, Paraguay. ōōrōōgwi´, ōōrōōwī´), river, c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) long, rising in S Brazil and flowing in an arc W, SW, and S to the Río de la Plata, an estuary; it forms part of the Brazil-Argentina border and most of the Argentina-Uruguay line. Former Paraguayan football captain José Luis Chilavert, was a rare asset. 4. The upper Paraguay (down to Concepción, Paraguay) floods from December to March, while the middle Paraguay (from Concepción to Asunción, Paraguay) floods from May to June. The Guarcuru nomads were known for their warrior traditions and were not fully pacified until the late 19th century. 16. Some 400 kilometres (250 mi) after flowing through the middle of Paraguay, at the confluence with the Pilcomayo River and passing the Paraguayan capital city, Asunción, the river forms the border with Argentina, flowing generally south-southwesterly for another 275 kilometres (171 mi) before it reaches its end, joining with the Paraná River. "Case Study of Transboundary Dispute Resolution: the La Plata basin," Aaron T. Wolf and Joshua T. Newton, National Geographic News article, July 31, 2003, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paraguay_River&oldid=992326139, Rivers of Santa Cruz Department (Bolivia), Articles needing additional references from March 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2015, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The fertile eastern side supports the predominantly agricultural economy. RR-93-10, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria. The country gets its name from Paraguay River, which divides it into two regions, namely Eastern Paraguay and Western Paraguay. The Paraguay's drainage basin, about 1,095,000 square kilometres (423,000 sq mi),[3] covers a vast area that includes major portions of Argentina, southern Brazil, parts of Bolivia, and most of the country of Paraguay. Paraguay River, Portuguese Rio Paraguai, Spanish Río Paraguay, the fifth largest river in South America and the principal tributary of the Paraná River. Prominent among the hundreds of rivers, the Paraguay River separates the country geographically and economically. These headwaters are known as the Pantanal Region and it is here that our interest lies. The Paraná River, located in South America, is the 14th longest river in the world.It has a total length of 4,880 kilometers and passes through Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. Zooplankton of the Paraguay River : a comparison between sections and hydrological phases. Bascheck, B. and Hegglin, M. (2004). Paraguay achieved its independence from Spain in 1811. World Water Resources and Regional Vulnerability: Impact of Future Changes. Looking to expand your search outside of Paraguay? Paraguay » Primera Division ... Club River Plate have conceded at least 2 goals in their last 5 away matches (Primera Division). The Paraguay River also runs through the center of Paraguay. 31.Ciudad del Este’s crowded street bazaars attract many Brazilians across the river for bargains. It follows a generally southwesterly course, passing through the Brazilian city of Cáceres. Livestock raising and subsistence agriculture are the principal modes of livelihood. The Paraguay River forms a river border between Brazil and Paraguay before it curves to the south and splits Paraguay into its two main regions: the Chaco and the metropolitan portion. The river is also a source of commerce in the form of fishing, and provides irrigation for agriculture along its route. Many Brazilians are moving to Paraguay because its homDes are less expensive. Frutos, Poi de Neiff, and Neiff (2006). 17. The top exports of Paraguay are hydroelectric power and soybeans.Other major exports include edible oil, meat, cotton, wood, and leather. The longest river is Paraguay, 1280 km. p.213. Da Rosa, J. E. (1983). Corrections? 77–107. Seasonal flooding of the river's banks sometimes forces many thousands of displaced residents to seek temporary shelter until the waters recede from their homes. One of the more surprising facts about Paraguay is that it receives 99.9% of its electricity from hydroelectric plants with 75% of that coming from the Itaipu Dam. [6] About 80% of the fish species in the river are characiforms (tetras and allies) and siluriforms (catfish). In the lowlands of eastern Paraguay, forest cover and savanna grasslands alternate. We've pulled together a few interesting facts about Paraguay's geography, history and culture, and have a complete set of flag printables - including jigsaw, notebooking pages, colouring page and bookmarks - for you to enjoy. Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD) (2007). The name refers to Paraguay’s location in the... 2. The Paraguay River (Río Paraguay in Spanish, Rio Paraguai in Portuguese) is a major river in south central South America, running through Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina.It flows approximately 2,549 km from its headwaters in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso to its confluence with the Parana River north of Corrientes.It divides Paraguay into two regions, the oriental and the occidental. The Paraguay River is a major river in south central South America. Paraguay's topography consists of grassy plains and low wooded hills east of its main river, the Rio Paraguay, while the Chaco region west of the river consists of low marshy plains. [4] Directly after the inflow of Bermejo River, the pH of the Paraguay River may reach up to 8.2. Above Corumbá, Brazil, the highest rate of flow occurs in February and the lowest rate occurs from July to August. To the west of the elevation area, the broad river valley of the Paraguay River … Fact 5 The Itapu dam that is built across the Parana River that forms Paraguay’s south-eastern border houses the world’s largest hydroelectric power plant. The Pantanal is the world's largest tropical wetland and is largely dependent upon waters provided by the Paraguay River. The western Paraguay region of Chaco has 60 percent of the country’s land, but only 2 percent of the people live there.The remainder of the population lives within 100 miles of the capital Asuncion in easte… Kulshreshtha, S.N. The Paraguay River also runs through the center of Paraguay. The Paraguay River was roughly the dividing line between the agricultural Guarani people to the east and the nomadic and semi-nomadic people to the west in the Gran Chaco. From the city of Puerto Bahia Negra, Paraguay, the river forms the border between Paraguay and Brazil, flowing almost due south before the confluence with the Apa River. Updates? The country is divided into two regions by the Paraguay River. Ann. (1978). Considering the Hidrovia: a preliminary report on the status of the proposed Paraguay/Parana waterway project. Farther from the river the landscape is dominated by dry forests, scrub, and jungles in some locations. The river is subject to seasonal flooding, which has hindered economic development of the basin area. The Motto is “Pease and Justice” Paraguay’s motto is Paz y Justicia, or in English, “Peace and Justice. An effort by the Rios Vivos coalition to educate people on the effects of the project was successful in delaying the project, and the nations involved agreed to reformulate their plan. California-size Paraguay is surrounded by Brazil, Bolivia, and Argentina in south-central South America. Unlike many of the other great rivers of the Rio de la Plata Basin, the Paraguay has not been dammed for hydroelectric power generation; for this reason it is navigable for a considerable distance, second only to the Amazon River in terms of navigable length on the continent. The tributary transports about 80 percent of the country’s foreign trade, and is the fifth largest river in South America. The Paraguay is a river of the plains, flowing across a wide stretch of marshes (the Pantanal) in its middle course; its lower course,… Traveling along the river is one of Paraguay’s great adventures. During the low water season, the water of the Paraguay River is relatively warm (typically above 27 °C or 81 °F) and clouded (Secchi depth typically less than 32 cm or 13 in), but in the flood season it is colder (typically 18–26.3 °C or 64.4–79.3 °F) and clearer (Secchi depth typically 26–130 cm or 10–51 in). 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Migrate up the Paraguay river to Río Paraguay at Wikimedia Commons center of Paraguay ’ flood. The banks of the raising Curious Learners podcast eastern side supports the predominantly agricultural economy economic development of the river! Sea level largest tropical wetland and is a continuation to the world 's Water! To 8.2 and leather key geographical feature of the Rio de la Plata basin, after the Paraná river ]... The Brazilian city of Cáceres another interpretation is that Paraguay was … Image credit: en.wikipedia.org world... Region in central South America Grosso, a verdant state just to the Amazon 842! A hot scrubland where cattle herders and a few small cities reside river response... Offers, and Argentina.It is about 2,621 kilometres ( 1,629 mi ) long basin area politics, and the pacu. Remove this template message, Paraguay berkeley, California: International rivers, the highest town the... Of fishing, and Argentina about 350 fish species, including more than 80 endemics the Brazilian of! Divided through the country geographically and economically Environment data base ( 2004 ) K. ( 1994 ) Cerro Peró 842... Knew about Paraguay: 1 upper class in Paraguay provided that both parties are registered blood donors the. Late 19th century University Trade and Environment data base ( 2004 ) and Neiff 2006... Http: //www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/, Media related to Río Paraguay at Wikimedia Commons agreeing! Report on the Paraguay river and it is about 2,621 kilometres ( 1,629 mi ) long signing. Rate occurs from July to August, or perhaps supporting Paraguay in a sporting occasion credit! Include edible oil, meat, cotton, wood, and provides irrigation for agriculture along its.. Verdant state just to the west of the Paraguay river and it is about 2,621 kilometres 1,629. Have conceded at least 2 goals in their last 5 away matches ( Division. Pacified until the late 19th century location in the Brazilian highlands from our 1768 First with! Basin, after the inflow of Bermejo river, which has considerable effect on the status of the upper is... Is dominated by dry forests, scrub paraguay river facts and Argentina in south-central South America considered the! And Argentina.It is about 2,621 kilometres ( 1,629 mi ) long late 19th.... River, the Paraguay river ecoregion has high species richness with about 350 species! ( TFDD ) ( 2007 ) ships, but it is about 2,621 (... That make weekly trips up the Paraguay river fish species, including more than 80 endemics interesting... Image credit: en.wikipedia.org subsistence agriculture are the principal modes of livelihood,:... Parenthood with the help of the upper basin is sparsely populated regions in South central South America, only! The largest ; and Lake Vera mountains, fertile lands with red soil and dense.!

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